The Treaty Trail: Isaac Stevens' Treaty Councils 1854-1856
Treaties and Councils: Stevens' Entourage

Although Governor Stevens led the Treaty Expeditions of 1854-1856, there were many others who accompanied him, and still more who served as witnesses to the treaty process. This list of non-tribal signers has been comprised from the text of the actual treaties.

Initial Treaty Advisers

James Doty, Secretary
George Gibbs, Surveyor
H. A. Goldsborough, Commissary
B. F. Shaw, Interpreter
Colonel M. T. Simmons

From Life of Isaac Ingalls Stevens, Volume 1, written by his son, Hazard Stevens: "The salient features of the policy outlined [to the advisers] were as follows:

  1. To concentrate the Indians upon a few reservations, and encourage them to cultivate the soil and adopt settled and civilized habits.
  2. To pay for their lands not in money, but in annuities of blankets, clothing, and useful articles during a long term of years.
  3. To furnish them with schools, teachers, farmers and farming implements, blacksmiths, and carpenter, with shops of those trades.
  4. To prohibit wars and disputes among them.
  5. To abolish slavery.
  6. To stop as far as possible the use of liquor.
  7. As the change from savage to civilized habits must necessarily be gradual, they were to retain the right of fishing at their accustomed fishing-places, and of hunting, gathering berries and roots, and pasturing stock on unoccupied land as long as it remained vacant.
  8. At some future time, when they should have become fitted for it, the lands of the reservations were to be alloted to them in severalty.
Medicine Creek Treaty
Michael T. Simmons
Michael T. Simmons

M. T. Simmons, Indian agent
James Doty, Secretary of the Commission
C. H. Mason, Secretary Washington Territory
W. A. Slaughter, First Lieutenant, Fourth Infantry
James McAlister
E. Giddings, Jr.
George Shazer
Henry D. Cock
S. S. Ford, Jr.
John W. McAlister
Clovington Cushman
Peter Anderson
Samuel Klady
W. H. Pullen
P. O. Hough
E. R. Tyerall
George Gibbs
Benj. F. Shaw, Interpreter
Hazard Stevens

Point Elliott Treaty

M. T. Simmons, Special Indian Agent
H. A. Goldsborough, Commissary
B. F. Shaw, Interpreter
James Tilton, Surveyor-General, Washington Territory
F. Kennedy
J. Y. Miller
H. D. Cock

Point No Point Treaty
Charles H. Mason
Charles H. Mason

M. T. Simmons
C. H. Mason, Secretary, Washington Territory
Benj. F. Shaw, Interpreter
John H. Scranton
Josiah P. Keller
C. M. Hitchcock, M.D.
A. B. Gove
H. A. Goldsborough
B. J. Madison
F. A. Rowe
Jas. M. Hunt
George Gibbs, Secretary
John J. Reilly
Robt. Davis
S. S. Ford, Jr.
H. D. Cock
Orrington Cushman
J. Conklin

Neah Bay Treaty

M. T. Simmons, Indian agent
George Gibbs, Secretary
B. F. Shaw, Interpreter
C. M. Hitchcock, M. D.
E. S. Fowler
Orrington Cushman
Robt. Davis

Walla Walla Treaty

James Doty, Secretary, Treaties
Wm. C. McKay, Secretary, Treaties
C Chirouse, O.M.I.
A. D. Pamburn, Interpreter
John Whitford, Interpreter
Mathew Dofa, Interpreter
William Craig, Interpreter
James Coxey, Interpreter
Patrick McKenzie, Interpreter
Arch. Gracie, Jr., Brevet Second Lieutenant, Fourth Infantry
R. R. Thompson, Indian Agent
R. B. Metcalfe, Indian Sub-agent

Yakima Treaty

James Doty, Secretary of Treaties
Mie. Cles. Pandosy, O. M. T.
Wm. C. McKay
W. H. Tappan, Indian Sub-agent, Washington Territory
C. Chirouse, O. M. T.
Patrick McKenzie, Interpreter
A. D. Pamburn, Interpreter
Joel Palmer, Superintendent Indian Affairs, Oregon Territory
W. D. Biglow

Nez Perce Treaty

James Doty, Secretary of Treaties, Washington Territory
Wm. McBean
Geo. C. Bomford
Wm. C. McKay, Secretary of Treaties, Oregon Territory
C. Chirouse, O.M.T.
Mie. Cles. Pandosy
W.H. Tappan, Indian Sub-agent
Lawrence Kip
William Craig, Interpreter
W.H. Pearson
A.D. Pamburn, Interpreter

Hell Gate Treaty

James Doty, Secretary
R. H. Lansdale, Indian Agent
W. H. Tappan, Indian Sub-agent
Henry R. Crosire
Gustavus Sohon, Flathead Interpreter
A. J. Hoecken, Sp. Mis.
William Craig

Blackfeet Treaty
Broken Arm
Broken Arm

James Doty, Secretary
Alfred J. Vaughan, Jr.
E. Alw. Hatch, Agent for Blackfeet
Thomas Adams, Special Agent Flathead Nation
R. H. Lansdale, Indian Agent Flathead Nation
W. H. Tappan, Sub-agent for the Nez Perces
James Bird, Blackfoot Interpreter
A. Culbertson, Blackfoot Interpreter
Benj. Deroche, Blackfoot Interpreter
Benj. Kiser, Flat Head Interpreter
Gustavus Sohon, Flat Head Interpreter
W. Craig, Nez Perce Interpreter
Delaware Jim, Nez Perce Interpreter
A Cree Chief (Broken Arm)
A. J. Hoeekeorsg
James Croke
E. S. Wilson
A. C. Jackson
Charles Shucette
Christ. P. Higgins
A. H. Robie
S. S. Ford, Jr.

Quinault Treaty

M. T. Simmons, Special Indian Agent
H. A. Goldsborough, Commissary
B. F. Shaw, Interpreter
James Tilton, Surveyor-General, Washington Territory
F. Kennedy
J. Y. Miller
H. D. Cock

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